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Present Perfect VS Past Simple

Present Perfect 

Use:  
1) The present perfect tense is often use to tell up-to-date news.
‘Great news! Jane has had a baby!’

But you cannot use the present perfect with phrases relating to finished time.
‘Great news! Jane has had a baby yesterday!’
So, to ask about and give more details, you need to use the past simple.
‘Great news! Jane has had a baby!’
‘When did she have it?’
‘She had it last night!’

2) The present perfect can be used with phrases relating to unfinished time, such as:
this week, today, this year
I’ve seen Roger twice this week.
That’s the second time I’ve seen that film this year.

3) The present perfect is often used in sentences with these words:
just, yet, already, ever, never
I’ve just finished the report.
Karen has finished the book already.
haven’t finished the report yet.
I’ve never been to Spain. Have you ever been?

4) The present perfect is used to describe periods of time that start in the past and continue until the present. It is often used with for and since.
I’ve lived here for five years.
James has worked here since last summer.

The present perfect and past simple may appear in the same sentence:
I’ve lived here since I was a child.
Tom has been unemployed since he left the factory.

Past Simple
Use:  
The past simple can be used with phrases relating to finished time, such as:
yesterday, last week, last month, in 2010, two weeks ago

Jemma left the company six weeks ago.
I emailed Tony last week.

Form:
Present Perfect

Positive

I  / you / they / we
he / she / it
have / ‘ve

has / ‘s

past participle

Negative

I / you / they / wehe / she / it haven’t / ‘ve not

hasn’t / ‘s not

past participle

Questions

Have
Has
you / they / we

he / she / it

past participle?

Past Simple

Positive

I  / you / they / we / he / she / it past tense verb

Negative

I  / you / they / we / he / she / it didn’t infinitive verb

Questions

Did you / they / we / he / she / it infinitive verb?